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Greenhouse Gas Ranking: Vapor ranks the first 十大温室气体排名

11/12/09

—Yi Wang  (Shenyang, China)

Climate Warm has become one of the most severe problem of Earth Environment. The main factor of Climate Change is GHG effect. Recently, scientists list ten typical gas contributing to the GHG. Among those gas, vapor ranks the first, Carbon dioxide which is well know is ranked the second, and the CH4 Methane ranks the third. The following will introduce the ten GHG.

1.Vapor
According to IPCC, 36-70% GHG comes from vapor.Mist and floating cloud are all made of vapor, and meanwhile, vapor is one of the main by-product of the combustion of the fossil fuel. However, Climate Warm causes more vapor and the vapor increases the temperature more, making a vicious circle.

2.Carbon Dioxide
Environmental experts point out that carbon dioxide is by-product coming from combusting fossil fuel. Carbon dioxide also comes from cell’s respiration. Plus, human’s industrial production also produces large quantity of carbon dioxide.

3.Methane
Methane is the main component of Natural Gas and cows’ belch. IPCC admits that the circulation of methane has not been understood, but research shows that methane gas is emitted from wetlands, landfills, and cow-farming.

4.Nitric Oxide
Nitric Oxide comes form rockets’ fuel combustion, car emission, and meanwhile, this gas also serves as recreational drug.

5.Ozone
Usually, when people talk about Ozone, they will focus on its insufficiency. However, ozone is one of powerful GHG. Because of its uneven distribution around the earth’s surface, some places are lake of it, while, some places have more than needed.

6.Trifluoromethane
Trifluoromethane has two major applications. First, it’s used on Computer Chip’s etching. Second, it is main component of fire extinguishing agent. As the richest hydrogen florine carbide, Trifluoramethane’s average living life in the atmosphere is about 260 years, and it can absorb the 11700 time heat of Carbon Dioxide.

7.Perfluoroethane
Perfluoroethan is always used to make semiconductor. Most of the chemicals can only live about 10 years in the atmosphere. Whereas, Perfluoroethane can stay in the atmosphere about 10,000 years. Because of its long life and its ability of absorbing 9200 times heat of carbon dioxide, perfluoroethane has become IPCC’s close study-object.

8.Sulfur Hexafluoride
This inert substance is mainly used as electrical insulation. It also can be used as tracer gas in the experiment to imitate the anemochory toxic gas in the terrorist attacks. IPCC believes that it’s the strongest GHG which absorbs 22,200 times heat of carbon dioxide.

9.Freon (Chlorofuoromethane)
Freon’s contribution to refrigeration is suspicious because first, Its heat absorption capacity is 4600 times of carbon dioxide, and on the other hand, its destructive effects on ozonosphere is stronger than any other refrigerant. Chlorofuoromethane can decompose out chlorine atoms in ultraviolet ray and the chlorine atoms will destroy ozoneosphere.

10. Sulfuryl fluoride
This new chemical substance is defined as GHG by MIT’s scientists on Mar. 11, 2009. In the beginning, a U.S.’s pottery chemical industry synthesized the sulfuryl fluoride to kill termites (white ants). This inert chemical can be effective for as long as 40 years. Sulfuryl fuoride’s heat absorption capability is 4800 times of carbon dioxide’s. Although this chemical occupies only 15/100,000 billions, this number keeps increasing at a rate of 5% every year according to recent report from the magazine of Journal of geophysical research.

1.水汽

水?水?!水!依据跨政府气候变化评估小组称,36~70%的温室效应是由水蒸气造成的。薄雾以及浮云都是水汽形成的,同时,水汽也是化石燃料燃烧 的主要副产品之一。更糟糕的是,变暖引发了一个正反馈环——高温造成更多的水汽,水汽增多导致温度进一步升高,如此循环往复。那么,下次如果再有人问起你 的“碳足迹”,你可以回问他们的“水足迹”。

2.二氧化碳

二氧化碳是导致全球气候转暖的第二大“元凶”,专家强调指出,二氧化碳是化石燃料燃烧的副产品,同样也是细胞呼吸作用的产物,而人类工业生产同样也产生二氧化碳。

3.甲烷

甲烷是天然气和母牛打嗝、放屁中的主要成份,目前甲烷气体已被科学家列为构成温室气体的三大气体之一。政府气候变化评估小组承认目前并不完全理解甲烷的循环,但已探测到甲烷气体从沼泽和白蚁等自然资源中释放出来,它还从垃圾堆和母牛农场中释放。

4.一氧化氮

一氧化氮是一种最快和最强烈的温室气体,火箭燃料燃烧、汽车耗油将释放出大量的一氧化氮,同时,该气体也可以作为一种”娱乐性药物 “(recreationaldrug)。随着人体呼出气体中包含着一氧化氮,以及街道车辆驾驶排放的大量该气体,使得一氧化氮成为温室气体的主要成份之 一。

5.臭氧

通常情况下,当气候讨论涉及到臭氧时,人们的讨论中心就会转向普遍的缺乏臭氧方面上。事实上,臭氧也是一种威力强大的温室气体。但是由于臭氧不是均 匀分布于地球表面,有的地方就会多一些(大气层最底层的人造臭氧层吸收热量,使地球保持适宜的温度),有的地方就会少一点(碳氟化合物使得大气层上部的臭 氧层因受破坏而变薄,从而导致冰冠暴露于太阳辐射之下)。

6.三氟甲烷

三氟甲烷,又称三氟甲,主要有两大用途,一是用于计算机硅片的蚀刻,一是用作灭火剂。作为迄今最为丰富的氢氟碳化物,三氟甲烷在大气中存在的平均寿命在260年左右,其吸热量相当于二氧化碳的11700倍。

7.全氟乙烷

全氟乙烷称得上是温室气体中的”彭祖“了,它常被用于半导体的制作。很多化学物质只能在大气中存在数十年,与之相比,全氟乙烷可以持续存在1万年。其超常寿命,以及相当于二氧化碳9200倍的吸热量,使得全氟乙烷成为跨政府气候变化评估小组密切监测的化学物质。

8.六氟化硫

这一惰性物质主要在电子工业中作为气体绝缘体,还可充当试验示踪气体以模仿恐怖袭击中的风播毒气。跨政府气候变化评估小组将其认定为世上最强温室气体——拥有相当于二氧化碳22200倍的吸热量。

9.氟利昂(氯氟甲烷)

氟利昂作为制冷剂在温室效应的产生上有着高度可疑的”贡献“,主要表现以下两方面:一方面是等量的三氯一氟甲烷的吸热量是二氧化碳的4600倍;另 一方面它对臭氧层的破坏力大大超过其他任何一种制冷剂。氯氟甲烷在紫外线的作用下可以分解出氯原子,氯原子可以对臭氧层造成极大的破坏,当然,氯本身也是 一种致死性毒素。

10.硫酰氟

这一新见化学物质于2009年3月11日被美国麻省理工学院的科学家定性为温室气体。最初是美国陶氏化工合成了硫酰氟来作为一种熏剂杀灭白蚁,而这 一惰性化学物质持久效力达40多年,每个硫酰氟分子的吸热量是二氧化碳的4800倍。虽然这一化学物质在大气层中仅占十万亿分之十五,然而根据《地球物理 学研究杂志》近期的报道,这一数字正以每年百分之五的速度增长着。

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