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EU is hard to lead the Global Climate Change Issue 欧盟难以在气候变化问题上发挥领导作用

11/24/09

By Pucong Han, Beijing China

Climate Change is one of the most significant global issues that EU usually actively participates and takes a lead.  However, subjecting to the restrictions from different parties, the EU is facing hurdles to achieve that.

On the Environment Ministers Meeting on November 24, there are 27 ministers of Environment Council from the EU renounced that the EU is welcome the new targets of some countries and if all the parties carefully increase their target to cut emission, the EU will cut the emission by 30% in 2020 based upon the emission level of 1990.

Dealing with climate change issues, national circumstances and interests are diverse for different countries, the EU faced with many difficulties to play a leading role through the issue of climate change.  First of all, the United States in foreign policy has always been a strong single – edge doctrine.  For the issue of climate change, the United States tries to protect its own national interests.  In the current international discussions on climate change negotiations, the US attitude has always been hesitant, and conservative.  Without the participation of the United States, the EU is hard to lead the climate change issues.  At the same time, there are also many differences exist between the EU and the developing countries, which restricts the leading of the EU.  In particular, the funding issues become the most significant difference.  The EU did not respond to the 1000 billion Euros funding requests from the developing countries, and this hurt the image of the EU in the world.  In the national level, there are also many differences between the parties of the EU.  The EU is hard to distribute the current 20% emission cut to its own parties.

国际在线报道(记者 贺金哲):欧盟成员国环境部长特别会议23日在布鲁塞尔召开,会议重申了欧盟参与哥本哈根联合国气候变化大会的既有立场,并强调欧盟应在此问题上发挥领导 作用。中国相关国际问题专家认为,气候变化问题被欧盟视作其在国际事务中发挥领导作用的一个突破口,但受各种因素掣肘,欧盟要实现这一构想将面临重重困 难。

在23日举行的欧盟成员国环境部长特别会议上,来自27个成员国的环境部长重申了欧盟秋季峰会时所达成的关于欧盟在气候变化问题上的立场和谈判任 务。会议发表的公报说,欧盟对近期一些国家提出的新减排目标表示欢迎,并重申如果有关各方加大减排承诺,欧盟将把其到2020年的温室气体排放量在 1990年的基础上减少30%。会议特别强调欧盟应该在气候变化问题上发挥领导作用。人们注意到,欧盟在气候变化问题上一贯非常积极,主张限制温室气体排 放并主动承担减排义务。中国国际问题研究所欧盟研究中心主任邢骅认为,现在气候变化问题已经成为一个全球性问题,而欧盟则试图以气候变化问题为突破口,寻 求领导全球事务:“那么气候变化问题就是欧盟想在国际事务当中,发挥主导地位的一个突破口,因为欧盟在军事力量来说并不是一个强有力的集体,在世界面临的 反恐或者地区热点问题上,欧盟相对的发言权比较少。气候变化问题更突出的是一种经济或者社会等比较超前的问题,欧盟由于自己经济发展程度很高,它的落后工 业总体上已经进行了改革,在这个方面(气候变化问题)它的发言权就更大一些,欧盟认为在气候变化这个问题上它高举旗帜,就是能够特别发挥它的软实力这样一 个优势。”

不过,邢骅认为,在气候变化问题上,各国的处境和利益各不相同,博弈激烈,欧盟想在气候变化问题上发挥主导作用面临很多困难:“美国一贯地在外交政 策上有强烈的单边主义,所以在气候变化问题上,它一直强力地维护自己国家利益,在现在的关于气候变化的国际讨论协商中,美国的态度一直也是犹豫的、保守 的。欧盟想发挥旗手作用,这个限制既来自美国的不配合,也来自欧盟和发展中国家的立场和利益还有相当大的差别,在欧盟内部也有不同的意见,所以有的评论分 析,欧盟想在气候变化问题上发挥主导作用,但是它是碰到一个分裂的世界。”

导致全球气候变化的责任主要在发达国家,这已经成为全球性的共识,因此广大发展中国家认为,在应对气候变化问题上,发达国家和发展中国家应该承担共 同但有区别的责任。邢骅认为,欧盟在这个问题上与发展中国家立场不一致,而且在向发展中国家提供资金和技术援助方面消极应对,这与它所想要承担气候变化“ 旗手”的目标是不相称的:“欧洲在口头上也不反对共同但有区别的责任原则,但是在实际谈判当中,它往往又强调发展中国家共同地担负起责任,但是很少提及这 个责任应该是有区别的,在最近的欧盟会议上,关于给发展中国家提供资金援助的问题,欧盟有一个估计,就是到2020年之前,发展中国家需要1000亿欧元 的援助,但是欧盟没有提出它愿意承担多大的数额,这就在丹麦气候变化大会之前,给欧盟想当气候变化旗手形成一个很严重的挫折,很有损欧盟的国际形象。”

邢骅认为,欧盟内部在减排问题上仍存在不少分歧,这也成为欧盟试图主导气候变化问题的障碍:“2007年欧盟提出来在2020年之前,它要减少 20%的废气的排放,这样一个减排的数额在各成员国之间怎么分配,这也是欧盟内部还没有解决的问难,像波兰就提出来,如果大家都平等地去分担这个减排的数 额,那我们经济上比老成员落后的状况就永远维持下去,所以除了对外援助资金的分配上有分歧,减排这个任务到欧盟内部怎么去分配,各成员国那也是有不同考虑 的。”

Come From: 凤凰资讯 ifeng.com

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