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“Two Track Negotiations” principle of the Copenhagen Conference cannot be changed “二轨谈判”原则不能变

11/30/09

By Pucong Han, Beijing China

Recently, China, India, Brazil, South Africa and chairman of the 77 Group, Sudan, coordinate their positions and achieve consensus on a “two track negotiation” in Beijing.  The “two track negotiations” refers to both in the “Kyoto Protocol” under the framework of norms in developed countries emission reduction obligations under the “Kyoto Protocol” Parties to the consultation mechanism, and in the “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”, the common discussion between the developed countries and the developing countries.

This meeting in Beijing deals with the consequences of the emission targets that the developed countries force the developing countries to come up with.  The developed countries believe that they do not have responsibilities to the developing countries about their previous emissions and highlights that they just access the scarce resources earlier than other countries.  The developed countries announces that they need to have permission for emissions based upon their previous emission targets, and they also believes that price mechanism will achieve a healthy global emission level without people’s intervention.  At the same time, the developed countries also announce that the developing countries should take the responsibilities of the climate change.   A few developed countries also use “China’s Environmental Threat Theory” to restrict the development of China’s economy, and, at the same time, they believe that technology causes the climate change.  As a result, the developed countries do not want to transfer their technology to the developing countries, such as China.

日前,中国、印度、巴西、南非“基础四国”及七十七国集团主席国苏丹的代表在北京为哥本哈根气候变化大会协调立场,并就坚持“二轨谈判”原则、加强内部团结共同推进全球气候变化谈判形成了共识。

这次会议是在哥本哈根大会将近,欧美等对发展中国家阵营施压,要求发展中国家承担量化减排目标的背景下进行的。在全球气候变化谈判中,发达国家 坚持认为它们只不过是在时间上较早运用了大气权利,并没有对发展中国家构成历史责任和债务,以前的累积排放不但没有责任,而且现在的排放权也应该根据原来 排放权发放,这种论调还认为资源的使用和二氧化碳的排放量可通过市场达到最优状态,因此无需人为干预。这种现实主义、功利主义论调的本质就要让发达国家继 续拥有最大的排放权空间,并借此继续主导国际秩序。基于这种逻辑,发达国家首先宣称发展中国家应该为气候变化承担主要责任。其次一些发达国家想以“环境威 胁论”为借口限制中国的发展;最后发达国家忽视发展中国家经济发展的特殊需要,认为发展中国家工业化过程是造成全球气候变化问题的根源,同时回避自己在环 境问题上的主要责任,不愿意在资金和技术上向发展中国家提供援助。

“二轨谈判”是指既有在《京都议定书》框架下,规范发达国家减排义务的《京都议定书》缔约方磋商机制,也有在《联合国气候变化框架公约》下,共 同讨论发达国家、发展中国家减排义务的磋商机制。在哥本哈根谈判进程中,发达国家否定“二轨谈判”原则,把自身中期减排指标和全球气候变化长期谈判合并在 一起,重点要求中国和印度等主要发展中国家做出中期减排承诺。另一方面,欧美国家把气候变化援助作为外交工具,利用最不发达国家和小岛屿国家自身迫切需 要,通过资金和技术援助的方式分而施压,以期分化七十七国集团与中国在气候谈判中的团结,把矛盾集中在中国等发展中大国。 为了应对发达国家上述策略,发展中国家应该坚持“共同但有区别的责任”原则,防止一部分发展中大国被贴上“非发展中国家”的标签,导致一些发展中国家在经 济发展尚不强大的时候过早被限制排放和经济发展。

“巴厘岛路线图”明确指出所有发达国家要有可测量、可报告、可核实的减排措施。目前发达国家的承诺距离国际社会的要求还有巨大差距,有关联合国 机构认为发达国家目前所提出的减排目标约仅相当于联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)建议的25%。因此发展中国家应该继续高调要求发达国家到 2020年,要在1990年水平上至少减排40%,否则全球气候变化谈判仍然难言成功。

广大发展中国家是气候变化的最大受害者,而中国、印度等新兴发展中国家的工业化进程和后京都谈判进程同步,因此他们将承受着更大的经济发展压 力。发达国家理应向发展中国家提供可测量、可报告、可核实的资金技术援助。正如北京会议所强调的,哥本哈根会议成果应包括资金和技术转让等内容,并应考虑 最不发达国家、小岛屿发展中国家和非洲国家在应对气候变化方面的特殊需求,推动发达国家为发展中国家提供每年1000亿美元的气候变化资金和技术援助。

From Sina News Agency

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