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中方代表透露中国应对气候变化立场 China disclosed its position toward climate change

11/30/09

–Mengxiao Han, Nanjing, China

Brief introduction:

At the beginning of this year, all over the world has raised high expectations on the Copenhagen conference. However, we have to reduce our expectations based on the current situation. Actually, several Chinese officials have declared that no agreements may be achieved during the Copenhagen conference.

At the submit about climate change hold by Central University of Finance and Economics, the deputy director of National Climate Center, Lv Xuedu disclosed the positions of Chinese government for the first time. The first position is if the developed countries give the developing countries supports of financing, technology transfer and construction in order to reduce emissions, these reduced emissions cannot be served for fulfilling the commitments of the developed countries.

Lv Xuedu, who participated in setting the target beyond 2020, expressed: “Many institutes put forward the projects which set target between 25% and 35%. The number of the final target which is between 40% and 45% is the highest one. It is really tough for us to meet the target.” He also claimed that although the target of the United States contributes to reach a substantial agreement in Copenhagen, it is till far away from the developing countries’ demand.

So far, some countries have come to a consensus that we should achieve a temporary convention which includes the commitments of both the developing countries and developed countries and the support of financing and technology transfer. Chinese government states that if the world cannot reach a legally binding agreement this year, we can continue to negotiate next year.

“在今年年初以前,全球对哥本哈根气候大会寄予了极高期望,但从现在来看,我们不得不调低期望。”中国气候变化谈判代表、国家气候中心副主任吕学都28日在北京忧心忡忡地表示。当晚,他就启程前往哥本哈根,10天后,他将代表中国坐在哥本哈根大会的谈判桌上。

事实上,这已不是中国高级气候官员最近第一次作出类似的消极表态了。上周,国家发改委应对气候变化司国际谈判和国际政策处处长李高在北京表示, 哥本哈根气候谈判取得实质性进展“没有问题”,但的确有使《京都议定书》空壳化的力量存在,哥本哈根会议无果而终的可能性是存在的。

发达国家不愿支持

在中央财经大学举行的“气候变化与排放权交易:金融创新与法律规制”高层论坛上,吕学都首次公开透露中国政府立场之一:发展中国家的减排行动如果获得发达国家的资金、技术转让和能力建设支持,这样的减排行动的减排量不能拿来冲抵发达国家的减排义务。

吕学都表示,资金、技术转让和能力建设是发展中国家参与应对气候变化的关键所在,“从1991年2月气候变化谈判一开始,发展中国家就呼吁发达国家为发展中国家参与应对气候变化的努力提供资金、技术转让及能力建设,为保护气候作出贡献,但发达国家在这方面的表现乏善可陈。”

中国选了一个较高指标

参与中国2020年减排指标制定的吕学都透露,有很多国内机构参与制定中国的减排指标,有的方案提出的数字是25%~35%,最后选定的 40%~45%是在很多方案中比较高的,做起来难度很大。“如果碳排放强度线性下降,付出的代价和努力一定是指数级增长的,这包括中国将付出经济发展以及 失业等社会代价。”他坦言。

至于美国提出的在2005年基础上减排17%的指标,吕学都认为,这对哥本哈根达会议达成成实质性协议还是有推动作用的,但离发展中国家的要求相差很远,“发展中国家并不是对每一个发达国家有一个要求,而是对发达国家整体有要求。”

今年谈不成明年继续谈

吕学都透露,哥本哈根会议的谈判“非常缓慢、非常艰难!最近的两次谈判甚至出现倒退”。11月上旬进行的本年度第5轮谈判,也是哥本哈根会议的最后一轮磋商,进展微乎其微。“谈判的决定性因素是发达国家是否能够继续带头深度减排,是否能够拿出资金和技术帮助发展中国家。”吕学都表示。

据吕学都介绍,目前发达国家已考虑哥本哈根会议不能够达成全面协议的替代方案,即通过一个具有实质性内容的协议。“大家已有一个共识,如果完全失败,国际社会承受不起,现在各方在寻找的是一个能够说得过去的协定。这个协定应该是规定了发达国家具体的减排义务、发展中国家的减排行动、发达国家提供资金和技术转让等。以此来把目前为止的谈判结果固定下来。今年谈不成,明年继续谈。”丹麦政府曾提议,各国推迟到2010年再达成一项具有法律约束力的协议,而此前先达成一项全面的政治约定。

(参考内容:东方早报)

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