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Copenhagen Climate Conference: Hard to reach a strong agreement哥本哈根气候大会艰难促成协议:

12/19/09

By Pucong Han, Beijing China
After the Copenhagen climate negotiations, countries and regions with reservations do not have to sign the agreement.  As a consequence, the global deal becomes a weak agreement. Many observers said that the conference has failed. Although the deal becomes a weak agreement, it was reached during a difficult and dramatic night. President Barack Obama announced in Copenhagen that different parties will reach a “meaningful and unprecedented breakthrough.” However, many observers are disappointed about the “interim agreement in Copenhagen” because the document does not provide greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for the developed countries by 2020 and, at the same time, deletes the targets of reducing the world’s emissions of greenhouse gases by 50% in 2050.
The draft of the Copenhagen Accord was prepared by the leaders and representatives from 28 major states on Thursday morning, including the U.S. President Barack Obama and the basic four countries – China, India, Brazil, South Africa leaders. A key change was finally reached after a closed-door talk on Friday afternoon. In order to reach an agreement, the two sides made concessions to each other. The agreement draft does not have any legal constraints and will not take into effect unless it is endorsed by the Parties.
由于持保留意见的国家和地区不必签署,因此这次达成的只是一个很弱的协议,很多观察人士表示此次会议已经失败
联合国政策计划助理秘书长(Assistant Secretary of Policy Planning UN)罗伯特•奥(Robert Orr)在同一个发布会上解释,“注意”在联合国的法律术语语境中,等同于接受(accept),即各方一致同意该文件成为联合国附录文件。但对此文件持 有保留意见的国家和地区,不必签署。观察人士向笔者解释,“注意”这一表述是很弱的,表明大家对它的接受程度存在分歧。从这种意义上说,此次会议已经失败。但即便是这样一个很弱的协议,也是在经过艰难而戏剧性的一个不眠之夜之后达成的。当地时间周五(12月18日)晚上10时30分,美国白宫宣布,总统奥巴马在哥本哈根达成一个“有意义的、前所未有的突破”。但随后公布的《哥本哈根临时协议》令很多观察人士感到失望,因为文件既未规定发达国家到2020年的温室气体减排目标,同时又将包括“全球在2050年前减排温室气体50%、发达国家在2050年前减排温室气体80%的目标”从文中删除。为期两周的《联合国气候框架公约(UNFCCC)》缔约方第十五次大会(COP15),本应在周五(12月18日)晚结束,但不出预期,大会延迟了。《哥本哈根临时协议》是在28个主要国家领导人及代表在周四凌晨起草的一份草案的基础上发展而来,最终由美国总统奥巴马和基础四国——中国、印度、巴西、南非领导人在周五下午的一个关键性闭门会谈后修改定稿。双方在一些关键性议题上各自做了让步。这份《临时协议》并不具有任何法律性约束,但仍需要得到缔约方的一致同意背书才能生效。就该《临时协议》举行决议的大会,直到周六凌晨2时左右才召开。来自图瓦卢、委内瑞拉、玻利维亚、古巴,以及苏丹等发展中国家,向这份协议发起了猛烈的攻击。他们谴责这份协议是由28个国家在未经和其他各方协商讨论的情况下闭门产生,程序上“不民主、不透明”。他们也谴责这份协议在内容上过弱,完全不具有法律约束力,缺乏实质内容。苏丹气候谈判代表卢蒙巴更是在会上“口不择言”,称气候变化将“毁灭非洲”,并将这种“毁灭”和欧洲的犹太人种族大屠杀相提并论。卢蒙巴的言论引起了与会诸多代表,包括来自非洲其他国家代表的不满。他们纷纷反击卢蒙巴,称其“种族大屠杀”的说法是“无法接受的”,“令人鄙夷的”。大会因意见争锋相对、无法协调而多次休会,并一直延续至周六早上9时左右。之后,大会休会长达一个小时左右。当会议重新召集时,大会主席宣布各方同意“注意《临时协议》”。据潘基文在新闻发布会上透露,之所以后来各方达成在“注意”上的共识,是因为他在休会期间进行了个人斡旋。潘基文并表示,他将努力使这一《临时协议》变成一个具有法律约束力的协议。但他没有提供这一转变的时间表。根据计划,《公约》缔约方第16次会议将在明年年底于墨西哥举行。
Come from: Sina News
此文来自胡舒立•我们网 (引用此文的目的是与学生分享学习哥本哈根气候环境大会,非常感谢新浪网以及胡舒立•我们网 在互联网上提供资源)

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